|Turnbull National Wildlife Refuge is located on the eastern edge of the Columbia Basin, in Spokane county in northeastern Washington. The Refuge is situated within the "Channeled Scablands", an area formed by volcanic activity and glacial floods at the end of the last ice age. Turnbull National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1937 to provide productive breeding and nesting grounds for migratory birds and other wildlife. Throughout the years, the focus has broadened to protect habitat for the numerous species of birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, insects, and plants that call the refuge home. These inhabitants of Turnbull rely on the 17,000 acres of unique grassland, wetland, riparian, and forest habitats that lie in the heart of the Channeled Scablands.